Products
HMB® and PEAK-ELITE™ (ATP) STACK
$108.90 $104.95

While Supplies Last!

1- HMB® 90 Grams Unflavored

1- PEAK-ELITE PLUS™ 60 V-Caps - New & Improved Version!

Product Details

HMB & PEAK-ELITE PLUS™ (ATP) stack contains:

1- HMB 90 Grams Unflavored

1- PEAK-ELITE PLUS™ 60 V-Caps (New Version)

30 Day Supply when used as directed.


PEAK-ELITE PLUS 60™ V-Caps


PEAK-ELITE PLUS™ combines the clinically proven and patented PEAK-ATP® with ActiGin®, to support the physical performance demands of the competitive athlete.*

What is PEAK ATP®?
PEAK ATP® is a clinically validated and patented form of Adenosine 5’-Triphosphate (ATP) Disodium shown to improve body composition and athletic performance by increasing muscular excitability, blood flow and recovery.*

Is ATP naturally occurring in the human body?
ATP is our body’s natural energy currency. According to researchers from the University of Leeds, the human body has an ATP pool of just 250g, which is approximately the amount of energy equivalent to a single AA battery. ATP is being constantly used and regenerated in cells via a process known as respiration, which is driven by natural catalysts called enzymes. Each day the human body turns over as much ATP as its own body weight.

How does PEAK ATP® work?
PEAK ATP® helps to optimize athletic performance through three distinct mechanisms of action: 1) ATP increases muscular excitability resulting in significant
gains in strength and power, 2) ATP increases blood flow, resulting in improved oxygen and nutrient delivery to the muscle and 3) ATP is involved in anabolic signaling, resulting in increased lean body mass and muscle thickness.*

What is Muscular Excitability?

Muscular excitability refers to the ability to activate muscle, thereby causing it to contract. The greater the excitability of the muscle the greater its force, velocity, and endurance properties will be. Muscle is excited by the release of calcium into the cell. Calcium serves as the trigger for contraction. Peak ATP® works by increasing and sustaining the amount of calcium available to the muscle, which boosts muscular excitability. The result is the athlete will lift greater weights and produce a greater number of repetitions per set.


How does PEAK ATP® Improve Blood Flow?

Red blood cells release ATP into the blood when muscles are fatigued, causing vasodilation to occur. PEAK ATP® supplementation increases the amount of ATP available in red blood cells. As a result of more ATP being available, significant
increases in blood flow, oxygen delivery and clearance of metabolic waste products such as lactate are obtained.

 Clinically Proven Benefits of PEAK ATP® use include:

  • Increases Total Strength By 147%* (1a)
  • Increases Power By 30%* (1b)
  • Increases Lean Mass By 100%* (1c)
  • Boosts Muscular Excitability*
  • Reduces Muscular Fatigue* (2)
  • Improves Blood Flow Up To 54%* (3)
  • Enlarges Calcium Pool* (4)
  • Acceptable For Use By All Athletes (Banned Substance Free)
All PEAK ATP clinical data & information provided by TSI USA (tsiinc.com)


WHAT IS ACTIGIN®?

ActiGin® is an all natural, non-stimulant, perfor­mance-enhancing sports nutrition supplement that has shown in NuLiv Science’s one animal and three human clinical trials published in PLOS One in 2015 to improve endurance performance at high-intensity, to buffer destructive oxidative attack on cellular components during vigorous exercise, to enhance adaptation in mitochondria enzyme activity against exercise challenge, and to promote anti-inflammatory shift balance after exercise.

BENEFITS OF ACTIGIN®

 IN THREE (3) HUMAN CLINICAL TRIALS ACTIGIN®:

  • Increases endurance in high-intensity exercise by 20% at 80% VO2max to exhaustion.
  • Increases energy catalyst citrate synthase activity by 47%.
  • Speeds up muscle fatigue recovery by increasing glycogen recovery rate of exercised muscles by 373% at the end of the 3rd hour after a 70% VO2max cycling exercise.
  • Decreases muscle damage (Creatine kinase) on day 4 after exercise by 69%.
  • Reduces free radical damage to muscle after exercise (MDA synthesis, an oxidative stress marker) by 44% on day 4 after high intensity exercise.
  • Reduces inflammation by decreasing IL-6 synthesis, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, by 35% on day 4 after high intensity exercise.

All ActiGin Clinical data provided by NewLiv Science. Reference at PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116387

 Suggested Use:  As an adult dietary supplement, consume one serving (two (2) V-Caps) approximately 30-60 minutes prior to exercise on an empty stomach. Note: Dosing 60-90 minutes pre-workout may benefit those with slow digestion, or those who wish to take close to meal time.  On non-training days, consume one serving (two (2) V-Caps) approximately 20-30 minutes prior to breakfast. For best results use daily for a minimum of 12 weeks. 

 Stacking Suggestions: PEAK-ELITE PLUS™ is formulated to stack well with all of our products, but is especially effective stacked with our CRE-O2™, Cordygen-NanO2 ELITE™ or Citruvol-ELITE™.

 Warning: As with any dietary supplement, consult your physician prior to use, especially if you suffer from any medical condition. Do not use is pregnant or nursing.  Do not use if you are allergic to any ingredient found in this product.  KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN

 Notes: Store in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight. Natural color variation is normal.

To report an adverse event call 1-800-249-7918.

 *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, prevent or cure any disease.

 PEAK ATP® is a registered trademark of TSI USA, Inc. and is used under license. Clinical references provided by TSI USA, Inc.

ActiGin is a registered trademark of NuLiv Science and is used under license.  All ActiGin clinical references and information is provided by NuLiv Science. Reference at PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116387

PEAK-ATP References:

1. Wilson JM et al. Muscular Adaptations and Safety of 12 Weeks of ATP Supplementation in Trained Men. published. (a-c) Percent ATP improvement over placebo: (a) ATP 55.3 kg, Placebo 22.4 kg (b) ATP 796 watts, Placebo 614 watts (c) ATP 4.0 kg, Placebo 2.1 kg (d) Percent ATP improvement over baseline: ATP 600.9 ml/min immediately after exercise after one week, baseline 391.0 ml/min.

2. Rathmacher, JA et al. Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2012, 9:48.

3. Lowery RP et al. Oral ATP administration improves blood flow response to exercise in an animal model and in resistance trained athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013, in press.

4. Endo M. Calcium-induced calcium release in skeletal muscle. Physiol Rev. 2009, 89(4):1153-1176.


 

 

References:

1. Wilson JM et al. Muscular Adaptations and Safety of 12 Weeks of ATP Supplementation in Trained Men. published. (a-c) Percent ATP improvement over placebo: (a) ATP 55.3 kg, Placebo 22.4 kg (b) ATP 796 watts, Placebo 614 watts (c) ATP 4.0 kg, Placebo 2.1 kg (d) Percent ATP improvement over baseline: ATP 600.9 ml/min immediately after exercise after one week, baseline 391.0 ml/min.

2. Rathmacher, JA et al. Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2012, 9:48.

3. Lowery RP et al. Oral ATP administration improves blood flow response to exercise in an animal model and in resistance trained athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013, in press.

4. Endo M. Calcium-induced calcium release in skeletal muscle. Physiol Rev. 2009, 89(4):1153-1176.

HMB 90 Grams Unflavored

HMB (Calcium β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate Monohydrate) is a potent metabolite of the Branch Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) Leucine and has been shown in scientific studies to protect muscle tissue, preserve muscle cells, promote muscle growth.*

In research HMB is shown to increase maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and improve the respiratory compensation point (RCP).  It appears that HMB may reduce metabolic acidosis, and the research also shows that it helps athletes tolerate high-intensity activity over a long period of time.  Research also shows that HMB lengthens the time to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA).* HMB improves the training status for endurance athletes for positive effects on endurance performance.*

Suggested Use: As an adult dietary supplement consume up to three (3) grams daily in divided doses preferably with high protein meals and post workout.

Warnings: Do not use if pregnant, contemplating pregnancy, or nursing.  This product is only intended to be consumed by healthy adults, 18 years of age or older.  Before using this product, consult with your physician.  Discontinue use and consult a health care professional if you experience any adverse reaction to this product.  Store in a cool, dry place below 80°F.  Do not use if the seal is broken or missing.  KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN

Made in the USA in a cGMP facility. Contains 100% HMB!  Packed by weight, not volume.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, prevent or cure any disease. 

“Nutritional uses of Ca

lcium β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate Monohydrate  HMB are licensed to Millennium Sport Technologies, Inc. under U.S. Patent # 5,348,979 and # 6,103,764.”  “Use of the trademark HMB is licensed from Metabolic Technologies, Inc.”

References

Strength & Muscle Building

2011

Fuller, Jr., J.C., S. Baier, P. Flakoll, S.L. Nissen, N.N. Abumrad, and J.A. Rathmacher., 2011 Vitamin D status affects strength gains in older adults supplemented with a combination of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, arginine, and lysine: A cohort study., JPEN 35:757-762 This year-long retrospective study in elderly adults demonstrated that a nutrient cocktail of HMB/ARG/LYS alone was effective in increasing muscle mass regardless of vitamin D status, but accompanying strength increases were observed only when participants also had adequate vitamin D status indicating a synergistic effect between the HMB/ARG/LYS and vitamin D.

Portal S., Z. Zadik, J. Rabinowitz, R. Pilz-Burstein, D. Adler-Portal, Y. Meckel, D. Cooper, A. Eliakim, and D. Nemet, 2011 The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, E. J. Appl. Physiol. 111:2261-2269 This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined HMB supplementation in young male and female elite volleyball players for 7 wks.  HMB supplementation resulted in significant increases in FFM and strength and decreased fat mass percentage.  HMB supplementation also increased peak and mean anaerobic power.  No changes in hormones or inflammatory mediators were seen in this study.

2009

Thomson, J.S., P.E. Watson, and D.S. Rowlands, 2009 Effects of nine weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta- methylbutyrate supplementation on strength and body composition in resistance trained men, J. Strength Cond. Res. 23:827-835 In this 9-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, HMB increased lean mass, decreased fat mass and resulted in a substantial increase in lower body strength.

Rowlands, D.S., and J.S. Thomson, 2009 Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation during resistance training on strength, body composition, and muscle damage in trained and untrained young men: a meta-analysis, J. Strength Cond. Res. 23:836-846 This recent meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of HMB in younger men participating in resistance-training programs.  The data were broken into trained and untrained subject groups.  The authors concluded that HMB supplementation resulted in clear overall increases in strength in men entering a resistance training program, but that the benefit of HMB in trained athletes was smaller.

Baier, S., D. Johannsen, N. Abumrad, J.A. Rathmacher, S. Nissen, and P. Flakoll, 2009 Year-long changes in protein metabolism in elderly men and women supplemented with a nutrition cocktail of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), L-arginine, and L-lysine, JPEN 33:71-82 In this year long double-blind, placebo-controlled study in the elderly, daily supplementation with HMB, arginine, and lysine increased lean mass and protein turnover. 

Kraemer W.J., D.L. Hatfield, J.S. Volek, M.S. Fragala, J.L. Vingren, J.M. Anderson, B.A. Spiering, G.A. Thomas, J.Y. Ho, E.E. Quann, M. Izquierdo, K. Hakkinen, and C.M. Maresh, 2009 Effects of amino acids supplement on physiological adaptations to resistance training, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exerc. 41:1111-1121 This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study tested the effects of EAS Muscle Armor® (main ingredients HMB, arginine and glutamine) in resistance-training men in a 12 week study.  This study showed that supplementation with Muscle Armor® doubled the effects of the training on lean mass and increased fat loss compared with placebo supplementation.  Muscle Armor® beneficially improved hormonal markers associated with intense resistance exercise and increasing lean mass.  Muscle Armor® also resulted in greater increases in strength, power, thigh circumference, and decreased indicators of muscle damage.

2008

Wilson, G.J., J.M. Wilson, and A.H. Manninen, 2008 Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on exercise performance and body composition across varying levels of age, sex, and training experience: A review, Nutr. Metab. (Lond) 5:1 This independent, peer-reviewed paper discusses the critical details of HMB studies and the variables affecting the results of these studies.  Included is a review of the current research showing how HMB works (metabolic mechanisms).  This paper concludes that collectively there is not only clinical data, but also mechanistic data supporting HMB's effect on increasing muscle mass and strength. 

2007

Kuhls, D.A., J.A. Rathmacher, M.D. Musngi, D.A. Frisch, J. Nielson, A. Barber, A.D. MacIntyre, J.E. Coates, and J.J. Fildes, 2007 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in critically ill trauma patients, J. Trauma Inj. Infect. & Crit. Care 62:125-131 Placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study of HMB in critically injured patients.
Data from this study suggest that HMB can improve nitrogen balance in severely injured trauma patients.

O’Connor, D.M. and M.J. Crowe, 2007 Effects of six weeks of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on strength, power, and anthropometry of highly trained athletes, J. Strength Cond. Res. 21:419-423 Subjects’ ethical backgrounds prevented this study from being conducted as a double-blind, placebo-controlled study; however, a placebo treatment was utilized.  Using skin-fold data reported in this paper, calculations of lean mass change show a numerical increase in lean tissue with HMB supplementation.  This calculation was however not reported in the paper.

Nissen, S.L., 2007 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate. In J.A. Driskell (Ed.) Sports Nutrition: Fats and Proteins, Boca Raton: CRC Press 12:221-241 This chapter in the CRC series of desk references for professional nutritionists and trainers discusses the origins, mechanisms, uses, safety and results of HMB supplementation in both healthy individuals and those experiencing unwanted muscle loss.

2004

Flakoll, P., R. Sharp, S. Baier, D. Levenhagen, C. Carr, and S. Nissen, 2004 Effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and lysine supplementation on strength, functionality, body composition, and protein metabolism in elderly women, Nutrition 20:445-451 Two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies in elderly women.  Data from two independent studies demonstrate that a nutritional mixture of HMB, arginine, and lysine can enhance whole body protein synthesis and improve functionality in elderly women.

2003

Ransone, J., K. Neighbors, R. LeFavi, and J. Chromiak, 2003 The effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscular strength and body composition in collegiate football players, J. Strength Cond. Res. 17:34-39 Double-blind randomized crossover study in 35 training collegiate football players.
This study was performed with highly trained athletes undergoing an intense training program. Although this study failed to show significant differences, HMB-supplemented subjects gained more lean and lost body fat.

Nissen, S. and R. Sharp, 2003 The efficacy of dietary supplements in accentuating the muscle mass and strength gains achieved with resistance exercise: A meta-analysis, J. Appl. Physiol. 94:651-659 A meta-analysis of dietary supplements used to increase lean and strength which shows few supplements used as ergogenic aids have two or more peer-reviewed studies. Only HMB and creatine have been shown to significantly increase lean and strength gains with exercise.

2001

Vukovich, M.D., N.B. Stubbs and R.M. Bohlken, 2001 Body composition in 70-year-old adults responds to dietary ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) similarly to that of young adults, J. Nutr. 131:2049-2052 Double-blind randomized study in elderly men and women participating in a weight training exercise program.
In this study, HMB tended to increase muscle strength and lean mass while significantly increasing fat loss over this eight-week study in older adults.

Jówko, E., P. Ostaszewski, M. Jank, J. Sacharuk, A. Zieniewicz, J. Wilczak, and S. Nissen, 2001 Creatine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight training program, Nutrition 17:558-566 Double-blind randomized study in weight training males.
This is the first major study to show that HMB combined with creatine supplementation results in even greater strength and lean gains than either HMB or creatine supplementation alone.

Slater, G., D. Jenkins, P. Logan, H. Lee, M. Vukovich, J.A. Rathmacher and A.G. Hahn, 2001 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not affect changes in strength or body composition during resistance training in trained men, Int. J. Sport Nutr. & Exer. Met. 11:384-396 Double-blind randomized study in trained male athletes undergoing a weight training program.
In highly trained athletes, HMB numerically increased strength and lean, but the increase was not significantly greater than that of the placebo group.

2000

Panton, L.B., J.A. Rathmacher, S. Baier, and S. Nissen, 2000 Nutritional supplementation of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) during resistance training, Nutrition 16:734-739 Two double-blind randomized studies including males and females and trained and untrained weightlifters.
Two separate studies showed that regardless of gender or prior training, HMB increases strength and minimizes muscle damage when combined with a four-week resistance-training program.

Gallagher, P.M., J.A. Carrithers, M.P. Godard, K.E. Schulze, and S.W. Trappe, 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) ingestion, Part I: effects on strength and fat free mass, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 32:2109-2115 Double-blind randomized study with male weightlifters. In this study, either three or six grams of HMB were consumed per day. HMB increased lean mass, peak muscle torques, and decreased plasma CPK after resistance training with no added benefit seen from consuming the higher level.

1999

Kreider, R.B., M. Ferreira, M. Wilson, and A.L. Almada, 1999 Effects of calcium ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during resistance training on markers of catabolism, body composition, and strength, Int. J. Sports Med. 20:503-509 Randomized placebo-controlled study of 40 experienced, resistance-trained males.  In this four-week study, trained athletes consumed either three or six grams of HMB per day. While not statistically significant, HMB consumption resulted in numerically greater lean and strength gains.

1996

Nissen, S., R. Sharp, M. Ray, J.A. Rathmacher, D. Rice, J.C. Fuller, Jr., A.S. Connelly and N. Abumrad, 1996 Effect of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training, J. Appl. Physiol. 81:2095-2104 Two double-blind randomized studies in weight training males.  In these separate studies, one for three weeks and one for seven weeks, it was found that feeding three grams of HMB to exercising humans increased lean mass, strength, and reduced muscle damage.

Aerobic Exercise

2007

Lamboley, C.R., D. Royer, and I.J. Dionne, 2007 Effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on aerobic performance components and body composition in college students, Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 17:56-69 Placebo-controlled study in college students.
HMB supplementation significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption.

2001

Vukovich, M.D. and G.D. Dreifort, 2001 The effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on VO2 peak and lactate threshold in endurance-trained cyclists, J. Strength and Conditioning Res. 15:491-497 Double-blind switchback study with HMB, leucine, and placebo.
This study showed that HMB supplementation increased the cyclists endurance as measured by VO2 peak and lactate threshold.

2000

Knitter, A., L. Panton, J.A. Rathmacher, A. Peterson, and R. Sharp, 2000 Effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle damage after a prolonged run, J. Appl. Physiol. 89:1340-1344 This double-blind randomized study in male and female runners showed that HMB reduced muscle damage after a prolonged run. Decreasing the amount of muscle damage caused by running may decrease the DOMS soreness many long-distance runners experience.

Safety

2005

Baxter, J.H., J.L. Carlos, J. Thurmond, R.N. Rehani, J. Bultman, and D. Frost, 2005 Dietary toxicity of calcium ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (CaHMB), Food & Chem. Toxicology 43:1731-1741 Toxicity study conducted in rats fed up to five percent HMB in the diet.
The data showed that HMB at five percent of the diet can be considered the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level). This amounted to ~3.5 and ~4.1 g/kg body weight intake per day in male and female rats, respectively. (Like a normal human consuming about 300 g per day.)

2000

Nissen, S., R.L. Sharp, L. Panton, M. Vukovich, S. Trappe, and J.C. Fuller, Jr., 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors, J. Nutr. 130:1937-1945 A summary of safety data from nine double-blind randomized clinical trials including both men and women and young and elderly adults.
HMB supplementation was shown to have no adverse or untoward effects. This summary also shows that HMB supplementation has positive effects on LDL cholesterol (-7.3 percent) and systolic blood pressure (-4.4 mm Hg).

Gallagher, P.M., J.A. Carrithers, M.P. Godard, K.E. Schulze, and S.W. Trappe, 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) ingestion, Part II: effects on hematology, hepatic and renal function, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 32:2116-2119 Double-blind randomized study with male weightlifters.  In this eight-week study, consuming up to six grams of HMB per day was shown to have no adverse effects on measures of hematology and hepatic and renal function.

How HMB Works

2012

Wilson, J.M., S.C. Grant, S.R. Lee, I.S. Masad, Y.M. Park, P.C. Henning, J.R. Stout, J.P. Loenneke, B.H. Arjmandi, L.B. Panton, and J.S. Kim, 2012 Beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate blunts negative age-related changes in body composition, functionality and myofiber dimensions in rats, J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 9:18 In a study using sedentary rats of multiple age groups, from young to old, HMB supplementation was shown to maintain muscle mass as the rats aged.  HMB simultaneously decreased fat mass in older rats.  Thus, HMB supplementation may be useful in blunting the effects of sarcopenia (muscle loss with aging) in humans, even without a stimulus such as regular exercise.

Aversa, Z., N. Alamdari, E. Castillero, M. Muscaritoli, F.R. Fanelli, and P.O. Hassegren, 2012 β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) prevents dexamethasone-induced myotube atrophy, Biochem. Biophysical Res. Comm. 423:739-743 This study used a model cell culture system that represents what happens in an animal or human.  Glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone used in this study, cause increased muscle protein degradation and decreased protein synthesis which result in a loss of muscle.  HMB attenuated the negative effects of dexamethasone on protein degradation and protein synthesis and thus prevented the muscle loss.

Pinheiro, C.H., F. Gerlinger-Romero, L. Guimarães-Ferreira, A.L. de Souza-Jr, K.F. Vitzel, R.T. Nachbar, M.T. Nunes, and R. Curi, 2012 Metabolic and functional effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in skeletal muscle., Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 112:2531-2537 In this study utilizing rats, HMB was shown to improve muscle tetonic force after 4 weeks of oral supplementation. HMB also decreased muscle fatigue as measured by muscle tension developed over successive contractions.  Additionally, HMB increased glycogen, ATP, and citrate synthase activity in these muscles which may have been why the HMB-supplemented rats had increased tetonic force and fatigue resistance.

2009

Kornasio, R., I. Riederer, G. Butler-Browne, V. Mouly, Z. Uni, and O. Halevy, 2009 β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) stimulates myogenic cell proliferation, differentiation and survival via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1793:755-763 This in vitro study of HMB on muscle cells showed that HMB affects myoblast differentiation and survival similar to IGF-1 and suggests that HMB has a positive role in preventing muscle wasting.

Russell, S.T., and M.J. Tisdale, 2009 Mechanism of attenuation by β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate of muscle protein degradation induced by lipopolysaccharide, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 330:171-179 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to simulate an endotoxemia model of muscle wasting in cultured muscle cells.  HMB was shown to attenuate the LPS-induced protein degradation.  HMB attenuated the activation of caspase-3/-8, activation of dsRNA-dependant protein kinase, and production of reactive oxygen species.  This study further defined the mechanism whereby HMB may attenuate protein degradation in muscle wasting.

Wilson, J.M., J. Kim, S. Lee, J.A. Rathmacher, B. Dalmau, J.D. Kingsley, H. Koch, A.H. Manninen, R. Saadat, and L.B. Panton, 2009 Acute and timing effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage, Nutrition & Metabolism 6:6 HMB supplementation was given either pre- (60 min to allow blood levels to increase) or post-exercise to college-aged men performing acute isometric exercise by maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps and hamstrings.  Taking HMB pre-exercise prevented an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an indicator of muscle damage.  Therefore this study indicated there was an advantage to taking HMB pre-exercise.

Holecek, M., T. Muthny, M. Kovarik, and L. Sispera, 2009 Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein metabolism in whole body and in selected tissues, Food Chem. Toxicol. 47:255-259 In this study tissue as well as whole body protein turnover was studied in rats after HMB administration.  This study demonstrated that HMB inhibits proteosome dependant proteolysis in skeletal muscle and decreases whold body protein turnover.

2008

Nunes, E.A., D. Kuczera, G.A. Brito, S.J. Bonatto, R.K. Yamazaki, R.A. Tanhoffer, R.C. Mund, M. Kryczyk, and L.C. Fernandes, 2008 β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation reduces tumor growth and tumor cell proliferation ex vivo and prevents cachexia in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats by modifying nuclear factor-kappaB expression, Nutr. Res. 28:487-493 This 8-week study using a rat tumor model showed that oral HMB attenuated the cachexic weight loss caused by the tumor, resulted in decreased tumor weight, and improved glucose and glycogen metabolism.  Therefore, HMB at commonly used dosages maintained healthy tissues while helping inhibit the tumor tissue growth.

Eley, H.L., S.T.Russell, and M.J. Tisdale, 2008 Attenuation of depression of muscle protein synthesis induced by lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor, and angiotensin II by β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 295:E1409-E1416 Lipopolysaccharide, tumor nucrosis factor-α and angiotensin II are catabolic in nature and depress protein synthesis.  In cultured muscle cells HMB attenuated the decrease in protein synthesis by stimulating factors involved in the mTOR/p70 pathway.

Eley, H.L., S.T. Russell, and M.J. Tisdale, 2008 Mechanism of attenuation of muscle protein degradation induced by tumor necrosis factor-α and angiotensin II by β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate., Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 295:E1417-E1426 The author's first paper detailed HMB effect on maintianing protein synthesis even after administration of lipopolysaccharide, TNF-α and angiotensin II.  This second set of experiments in cultured muscle cells showed that HMB attenuated a specific pathway involving caspase 3 and 8, PKR (RNA dependant protein kinase), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) known to activate the ubiquitin-protease pathway.  These data provide evidence as to why HMB is effective in maintaining and building muscle mass in a wide range of conditions such as AIDS, cachexia and aging.

2007

Eley, H.L., S.T. Russell, J.H. Baxter, P. Mukerji, and M.J. Tisdale, 2007 Signaling pathways initiated by ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate to attenuate the depression of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in response to cachectic stimuli, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 293:E923-E931 Protein synthesis studies conducted in a cachectic mouse model and in muscle cell culture.
The results demonstrate that HMB simulates protein synthesis in muscle by multiple mechanisms including the mTOR/p70S6k pathway. Many of these features are also shared with leucine. However, HMB is more potent than leucine in attenuating the development of cachexia and is better tolerated by oral administration.

2005

Smith, H.J., P. Mukerji, and M.J. Tisdale., 2005 Attenuation of proteasome-induced proteolysis in skeletal muscle by ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) in cancer-induced muscle loss, Cancer Res. 65:277-283 Study conducted in a mouse model of cancer tumor growth.
HMB preserves lean body mass and attenuates protein degradation through down regulation of the increased expression of key regulatory components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, togetherwith stimulation of protein synthesis.

Van Someren, K.A., A.J. Edwards, and G. Howatson, 2005 Supplementation with ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) and α-Ketoisocaproic Acid (KIC) reduced signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in man, Int. J. Sport Nutr. & Exer. Met. 15:413-424 Counterbalanced crossover study in 6 nonresistance trained males given either a placebo or HMB/KIC.
A combination of HMB/KIC, 3 and .3 grams, respectively, was shown to reduce exercise-induced muscle damage.

2004

Smith, H.J., S.M. Wyke, and M.J. Tisdale, 2004 Mechanism of the attenuation of proteolysis-inducing factor stimulated protein degradation in muscle by ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate, Cancer Res. 64:8731-8735 In vitro study of chemical markers of proteolytic functions in muscle cell cultures.
These studies showed HMB inhibits activation of a major protease pathway in muscle thus inhibiting protein degradation in muscle.

2001

Vukovich, M.D., G. Slater, M.B. Macchi, M.J. Turner, K. Fallon, T. Boston, and J. Rathmacher, 2001 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) kinetics and the influence of glucose ingestion in humans, J. Nutr. Biochem. 12:631-639 Randomized trials in which eight males took HMB, HMB plus glucose, glucose alone, or placebo. These metabolic studies showed that the half-life of HMB in plasma is about 2.5 hours and that up to 85 percent of the HMB ingested is retained in the body. Simultaneous glucose ingestion did not affect the percentage of HMB retained.

2000

Slater, G.J., P.A. Logan, T. Boston, C.J. Gore, A. Stenhouse, and A.G. Hahn, 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not influence the urinary testosterone:epitestosterone ratio in healthy males, J. Sci. Med. Sport 3:79-83 Case studies of six males taking HMB. Results indicated that HMB does not alter testosterone levels and infer that the HMB acts through a different mechanism.

HMB Innovation

2011

Fuller J.C., R.L. Sharp, H.F. Angus, S.M. Baier, and J.A. Rathmacher, 2011 Free acid gel form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) improves HMB clearance from plasma in human subjects compared with the calcium HMB salt., Br. J. Nutr. 105:367-372  The results of this research study demonstrate that a liquid gel form of HMB is more readily available to tissues when taken orally than the currently available powdered form, Calcium HMB.  The results show quicker and higher plasma levels of HMB with improved utilization by the tissues. HMB free acid gel could improve HMB availability and efficacy to tissues in health and disease. 

Additional Human Studies

2011

Fuller J.C., R.L. Sharp, H.F. Angus, S.M. Baier, and J.A. Rathmacher, 2011 Free acid gel form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) improves HMB clearance from plasma in human subjects compared with the calcium HMB salt., Br. J. Nutr. 105:367-372 The results of this research study demonstrate that a liquid gel form of HMB is more readily available to tissues when taken orally than the currently available powdered form, Calcium HMB.  The results show quicker and higher plasma levels of HMB with improved utilization by the tissues. HMB free acid gel could improve HMB availability and efficacy to tissues in health and disease. 

2004

Rathmacher, J. A., S. Nissen, L. Panton, R. H. Clark, M. P. Eubanks, A. E. Barber, J. D'Olimpio, and N. N. Abumrad, 2004 Supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine is safe and could improve hematological parameters, JPEN 28:65-75 Consumption of HMB, arginine, and glutamine by healthy, AIDS patients and cancer patients was studied.  No adverse effects were seen and the mixture enhanced hematological parameters such as red blood cell numbers.

2002

May, P.E., A. Barber, J.T. D’Olimpio, A. Hourihane, and N.N. Abumrad, 2002 Reversal of cancer-related wasting using oral supplementation with a combination of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine, Am. J. Surgery 183:471-479 Lean body mass can be increased in cancer wasting by targeting nutrition to increase protein synthesis and decrease protein degradation (multi-center study).

Williams, J. Z., N. Abumrad, and A. Barbul, 2002 Effect of a specialized amino acid mixture on human collagen deposition, Ann. Surgery 236:369-375 HMB combined with the amino acids arginine and glutamine increased collagen synthesis in human wound healing.

2001

Coelho, C.W. and T. Carvalho, 2001 Effects of HMB supplementation on LDL-cholesterol, strength, and body composition of patients with hypercholesterolemia, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 33:s340 In hypercholesterolemic men participating in an exercise program, HMB decreased LDL cholesterol by 28 percent as well as increasing strength and lean gains. No changes in LDL were seen in the placebo group.

2000

Neighbors, K.L., J.W. Ransone, B.H. Jacobson, and R.G. LeFavi, 2000 Effects of dietary ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate on body composition in collegiate football players, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 32:s60 HMB both decreased body fat and increased lean mass in these well-trained collegiate football players.

Ransone, J.W., K. L. Neighbors, T.B. Adams, B.H. Jacobson, and R.G. LeFavi, 2000 The effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate supplementation on muscular strength in collegiate athletes during a strenuous exercise program, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 32:s61 HMB supplementation increased lean mass in a brief, strenuous exercise program in highly trained athletes.

Zachwieja, J.J., S.R. Smith, S.L. Nissen, and J.A. Rathmacher, 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) is produced in vivo in humans from leucine, FASEB J. 14:A747 HMB is produced from leucine in humans and increasing plasma leucine will increase the rate of appearance and amount of plasma HMB.

Clark, R.H., G. Feleke, M. Din, T. Yasmin, G. Singh, F. Khan, and J. Rathmacher, 2000 Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), glutamine, and arginine: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, JPEN 24:133-139 AIDS patients who had previously lost body weight gained back body weight and lean body mass as well as increased T-cells and decreased viral load when they consumed a dietary supplement containing HMB, arginine, and glutamine (eight-week clinical study).

1999

Byrd, P.L., P.M. Mehta, P. DeVita, D. Dyck, and R.C. Hickner, 1999 Changes in muscle soreness and strength following downhill running: Effects of creatine, HMB, and Betagen supplementation, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 31:S263 HMB and Betagen (HMB and creatine) were the only supplements shown to decrease muscle soreness after downhill running, and HMB, creatine, and Betagen all decreased the loss in strength associated with the running.

Rathmacher, J.A., S.L. Nissen, L. Panton, J. Fuller, Jr., R.H. Clark, G. Singh, and N.N. Abumrad, 1999 Safety of a nutritional mixture of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), glutamine, and arginine in healthy young adults and patients with AIDS, JPEN 23:S10 The nutrient mixture of HMB, glutamine, and arginine was well tolerated in both healthy males and patients suffering from AIDS with no adverse effects seen in either study.

Zachwieja, J.J., S.R. Smith, G.A. Bray, J.C. Lovejoy, T.L. Witt, J.P. DeLany, and J.A. Rathmacher, 1999 Effect of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate on muscle protein synthesis during prolonged bedrest, FASEB J. 13:A1025 The trend for increased strength maintenance with HMB was not due to a change in muscle protein synthesis or whole-body protein turnover during periods of bed rest.

Macchi, M.B., M.J. Turner, J.A. Rathmacher and M.D. Vukovich, 1999 Influence of coingestion of glucose on ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) metabolism in humans, FASEB J. 13:A909 The half-life of HMB in the blood was shown to be about three hours and was independent of glucose intake or insulin level.

Rathmacher, J.A., J.J. Zachwieja, S.R. Smith, J.L. Lovejoy, and G.A. Bray, 1999 The effect of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate on lean body mass and muscle strength during prolonged bedrest, FASEB J. 13:A909 Three grams of HMB per day tended to decrease the strength loss associated with extended periods of bed rest.

1997

Cohen, D.D., 1997 The effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) and resistance training on changes in body composition during positive and negative energy balance – a randomized double-blind study, M.Sc. Thesis, St. Bartholomew's and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry – 0:Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of Lo HMB helped maintain muscle mass while on a calorie-restricted diet.

Nissen, S., L. Panton, J. Fuller, Jr., D. Rice, and R. Sharp, 1997 Effect of feeding ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition and strength of women, FASEB J. 11:A150 In two separate studies, one with and one without exercise, HMB was fed to women. No effect of HMB on body composition was measured in the non-exercising group of women, but in women undergoing exercise, HMB increased lean gain, fat loss, and strength.

Nissen, S. and N.N. Abumrad, 1997 Nutritional role of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), J. Nutr. Biochem. 8:300-311 This paper reviews the first seven human studies with HMB and summarizes health and safety data generated as well as the muscle and strength gain data from these studies. The only significant changes in blood chemistry are decreases in total and LDL cholesterol.

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HMB - Supplement Facts

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HMB & PEAK-ELITE PLUS™ (ATP) stack contains:

1- HMB 90 Grams Unflavored

1- PEAK-ELITE PLUS™ 60 V-Caps (New Version)

30 Day Supply when used as directed.


PEAK-ELITE PLUS 60™ V-Caps


PEAK-ELITE PLUS™ combines the clinically proven and patented PEAK-ATP® with ActiGin®, to support the physical performance demands of the competitive athlete.*

What is PEAK ATP®?
PEAK ATP® is a clinically validated and patented form of Adenosine 5’-Triphosphate (ATP) Disodium shown to improve body composition and athletic performance by increasing muscular excitability, blood flow and recovery.*

Is ATP naturally occurring in the human body?
ATP is our body’s natural energy currency. According to researchers from the University of Leeds, the human body has an ATP pool of just 250g, which is approximately the amount of energy equivalent to a single AA battery. ATP is being constantly used and regenerated in cells via a process known as respiration, which is driven by natural catalysts called enzymes. Each day the human body turns over as much ATP as its own body weight.

How does PEAK ATP® work?
PEAK ATP® helps to optimize athletic performance through three distinct mechanisms of action: 1) ATP increases muscular excitability resulting in significant
gains in strength and power, 2) ATP increases blood flow, resulting in improved oxygen and nutrient delivery to the muscle and 3) ATP is involved in anabolic signaling, resulting in increased lean body mass and muscle thickness.*

What is Muscular Excitability?

Muscular excitability refers to the ability to activate muscle, thereby causing it to contract. The greater the excitability of the muscle the greater its force, velocity, and endurance properties will be. Muscle is excited by the release of calcium into the cell. Calcium serves as the trigger for contraction. Peak ATP® works by increasing and sustaining the amount of calcium available to the muscle, which boosts muscular excitability. The result is the athlete will lift greater weights and produce a greater number of repetitions per set.


How does PEAK ATP® Improve Blood Flow?

Red blood cells release ATP into the blood when muscles are fatigued, causing vasodilation to occur. PEAK ATP® supplementation increases the amount of ATP available in red blood cells. As a result of more ATP being available, significant
increases in blood flow, oxygen delivery and clearance of metabolic waste products such as lactate are obtained.

 Clinically Proven Benefits of PEAK ATP® use include:

  • Increases Total Strength By 147%* (1a)
  • Increases Power By 30%* (1b)
  • Increases Lean Mass By 100%* (1c)
  • Boosts Muscular Excitability*
  • Reduces Muscular Fatigue* (2)
  • Improves Blood Flow Up To 54%* (3)
  • Enlarges Calcium Pool* (4)
  • Acceptable For Use By All Athletes (Banned Substance Free)
All PEAK ATP clinical data & information provided by TSI USA (tsiinc.com)


WHAT IS ACTIGIN®?

ActiGin® is an all natural, non-stimulant, perfor­mance-enhancing sports nutrition supplement that has shown in NuLiv Science’s one animal and three human clinical trials published in PLOS One in 2015 to improve endurance performance at high-intensity, to buffer destructive oxidative attack on cellular components during vigorous exercise, to enhance adaptation in mitochondria enzyme activity against exercise challenge, and to promote anti-inflammatory shift balance after exercise.

BENEFITS OF ACTIGIN®

 IN THREE (3) HUMAN CLINICAL TRIALS ACTIGIN®:

  • Increases endurance in high-intensity exercise by 20% at 80% VO2max to exhaustion.
  • Increases energy catalyst citrate synthase activity by 47%.
  • Speeds up muscle fatigue recovery by increasing glycogen recovery rate of exercised muscles by 373% at the end of the 3rd hour after a 70% VO2max cycling exercise.
  • Decreases muscle damage (Creatine kinase) on day 4 after exercise by 69%.
  • Reduces free radical damage to muscle after exercise (MDA synthesis, an oxidative stress marker) by 44% on day 4 after high intensity exercise.
  • Reduces inflammation by decreasing IL-6 synthesis, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, by 35% on day 4 after high intensity exercise.

All ActiGin Clinical data provided by NewLiv Science. Reference at PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116387

 Suggested Use:  As an adult dietary supplement, consume one serving (two (2) V-Caps) approximately 30-60 minutes prior to exercise on an empty stomach. Note: Dosing 60-90 minutes pre-workout may benefit those with slow digestion, or those who wish to take close to meal time.  On non-training days, consume one serving (two (2) V-Caps) approximately 20-30 minutes prior to breakfast. For best results use daily for a minimum of 12 weeks. 

 Stacking Suggestions: PEAK-ELITE PLUS™ is formulated to stack well with all of our products, but is especially effective stacked with our CRE-O2™, Cordygen-NanO2 ELITE™ or Citruvol-ELITE™.

 Warning: As with any dietary supplement, consult your physician prior to use, especially if you suffer from any medical condition. Do not use is pregnant or nursing.  Do not use if you are allergic to any ingredient found in this product.  KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN

 Notes: Store in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight. Natural color variation is normal.

To report an adverse event call 1-800-249-7918.

 *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, prevent or cure any disease.

 PEAK ATP® is a registered trademark of TSI USA, Inc. and is used under license. Clinical references provided by TSI USA, Inc.

ActiGin is a registered trademark of NuLiv Science and is used under license.  All ActiGin clinical references and information is provided by NuLiv Science. Reference at PLOS ONE (Public Library of Science) http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116387

PEAK-ATP References:

1. Wilson JM et al. Muscular Adaptations and Safety of 12 Weeks of ATP Supplementation in Trained Men. published. (a-c) Percent ATP improvement over placebo: (a) ATP 55.3 kg, Placebo 22.4 kg (b) ATP 796 watts, Placebo 614 watts (c) ATP 4.0 kg, Placebo 2.1 kg (d) Percent ATP improvement over baseline: ATP 600.9 ml/min immediately after exercise after one week, baseline 391.0 ml/min.

2. Rathmacher, JA et al. Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2012, 9:48.

3. Lowery RP et al. Oral ATP administration improves blood flow response to exercise in an animal model and in resistance trained athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013, in press.

4. Endo M. Calcium-induced calcium release in skeletal muscle. Physiol Rev. 2009, 89(4):1153-1176.


 

 

References:

1. Wilson JM et al. Muscular Adaptations and Safety of 12 Weeks of ATP Supplementation in Trained Men. published. (a-c) Percent ATP improvement over placebo: (a) ATP 55.3 kg, Placebo 22.4 kg (b) ATP 796 watts, Placebo 614 watts (c) ATP 4.0 kg, Placebo 2.1 kg (d) Percent ATP improvement over baseline: ATP 600.9 ml/min immediately after exercise after one week, baseline 391.0 ml/min.

2. Rathmacher, JA et al. Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2012, 9:48.

3. Lowery RP et al. Oral ATP administration improves blood flow response to exercise in an animal model and in resistance trained athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2013, in press.

4. Endo M. Calcium-induced calcium release in skeletal muscle. Physiol Rev. 2009, 89(4):1153-1176.

HMB 90 Grams Unflavored

HMB (Calcium β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate Monohydrate) is a potent metabolite of the Branch Chain Amino Acid (BCAA) Leucine and has been shown in scientific studies to protect muscle tissue, preserve muscle cells, promote muscle growth.*

In research HMB is shown to increase maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and improve the respiratory compensation point (RCP).  It appears that HMB may reduce metabolic acidosis, and the research also shows that it helps athletes tolerate high-intensity activity over a long period of time.  Research also shows that HMB lengthens the time to the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA).* HMB improves the training status for endurance athletes for positive effects on endurance performance.*

Suggested Use: As an adult dietary supplement consume up to three (3) grams daily in divided doses preferably with high protein meals and post workout.

Warnings: Do not use if pregnant, contemplating pregnancy, or nursing.  This product is only intended to be consumed by healthy adults, 18 years of age or older.  Before using this product, consult with your physician.  Discontinue use and consult a health care professional if you experience any adverse reaction to this product.  Store in a cool, dry place below 80°F.  Do not use if the seal is broken or missing.  KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN

Made in the USA in a cGMP facility. Contains 100% HMB!  Packed by weight, not volume.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, prevent or cure any disease. 

“Nutritional uses of Ca

lcium β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate Monohydrate  HMB are licensed to Millennium Sport Technologies, Inc. under U.S. Patent # 5,348,979 and # 6,103,764.”  “Use of the trademark HMB is licensed from Metabolic Technologies, Inc.”

References

Strength & Muscle Building

2011

Fuller, Jr., J.C., S. Baier, P. Flakoll, S.L. Nissen, N.N. Abumrad, and J.A. Rathmacher., 2011 Vitamin D status affects strength gains in older adults supplemented with a combination of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, arginine, and lysine: A cohort study., JPEN 35:757-762 This year-long retrospective study in elderly adults demonstrated that a nutrient cocktail of HMB/ARG/LYS alone was effective in increasing muscle mass regardless of vitamin D status, but accompanying strength increases were observed only when participants also had adequate vitamin D status indicating a synergistic effect between the HMB/ARG/LYS and vitamin D.

Portal S., Z. Zadik, J. Rabinowitz, R. Pilz-Burstein, D. Adler-Portal, Y. Meckel, D. Cooper, A. Eliakim, and D. Nemet, 2011 The effect of HMB supplementation on body composition, fitness, hormonal and inflammatory mediators in elite adolescent volleyball players: a prospective randomized, E. J. Appl. Physiol. 111:2261-2269 This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined HMB supplementation in young male and female elite volleyball players for 7 wks.  HMB supplementation resulted in significant increases in FFM and strength and decreased fat mass percentage.  HMB supplementation also increased peak and mean anaerobic power.  No changes in hormones or inflammatory mediators were seen in this study.

2009

Thomson, J.S., P.E. Watson, and D.S. Rowlands, 2009 Effects of nine weeks of beta-hydroxy-beta- methylbutyrate supplementation on strength and body composition in resistance trained men, J. Strength Cond. Res. 23:827-835 In this 9-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, HMB increased lean mass, decreased fat mass and resulted in a substantial increase in lower body strength.

Rowlands, D.S., and J.S. Thomson, 2009 Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate supplementation during resistance training on strength, body composition, and muscle damage in trained and untrained young men: a meta-analysis, J. Strength Cond. Res. 23:836-846 This recent meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of HMB in younger men participating in resistance-training programs.  The data were broken into trained and untrained subject groups.  The authors concluded that HMB supplementation resulted in clear overall increases in strength in men entering a resistance training program, but that the benefit of HMB in trained athletes was smaller.

Baier, S., D. Johannsen, N. Abumrad, J.A. Rathmacher, S. Nissen, and P. Flakoll, 2009 Year-long changes in protein metabolism in elderly men and women supplemented with a nutrition cocktail of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), L-arginine, and L-lysine, JPEN 33:71-82 In this year long double-blind, placebo-controlled study in the elderly, daily supplementation with HMB, arginine, and lysine increased lean mass and protein turnover. 

Kraemer W.J., D.L. Hatfield, J.S. Volek, M.S. Fragala, J.L. Vingren, J.M. Anderson, B.A. Spiering, G.A. Thomas, J.Y. Ho, E.E. Quann, M. Izquierdo, K. Hakkinen, and C.M. Maresh, 2009 Effects of amino acids supplement on physiological adaptations to resistance training, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exerc. 41:1111-1121 This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study tested the effects of EAS Muscle Armor® (main ingredients HMB, arginine and glutamine) in resistance-training men in a 12 week study.  This study showed that supplementation with Muscle Armor® doubled the effects of the training on lean mass and increased fat loss compared with placebo supplementation.  Muscle Armor® beneficially improved hormonal markers associated with intense resistance exercise and increasing lean mass.  Muscle Armor® also resulted in greater increases in strength, power, thigh circumference, and decreased indicators of muscle damage.

2008

Wilson, G.J., J.M. Wilson, and A.H. Manninen, 2008 Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on exercise performance and body composition across varying levels of age, sex, and training experience: A review, Nutr. Metab. (Lond) 5:1 This independent, peer-reviewed paper discusses the critical details of HMB studies and the variables affecting the results of these studies.  Included is a review of the current research showing how HMB works (metabolic mechanisms).  This paper concludes that collectively there is not only clinical data, but also mechanistic data supporting HMB's effect on increasing muscle mass and strength. 

2007

Kuhls, D.A., J.A. Rathmacher, M.D. Musngi, D.A. Frisch, J. Nielson, A. Barber, A.D. MacIntyre, J.E. Coates, and J.J. Fildes, 2007 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in critically ill trauma patients, J. Trauma Inj. Infect. & Crit. Care 62:125-131 Placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study of HMB in critically injured patients.
Data from this study suggest that HMB can improve nitrogen balance in severely injured trauma patients.

O’Connor, D.M. and M.J. Crowe, 2007 Effects of six weeks of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) and HMB/creatine supplementation on strength, power, and anthropometry of highly trained athletes, J. Strength Cond. Res. 21:419-423 Subjects’ ethical backgrounds prevented this study from being conducted as a double-blind, placebo-controlled study; however, a placebo treatment was utilized.  Using skin-fold data reported in this paper, calculations of lean mass change show a numerical increase in lean tissue with HMB supplementation.  This calculation was however not reported in the paper.

Nissen, S.L., 2007 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate. In J.A. Driskell (Ed.) Sports Nutrition: Fats and Proteins, Boca Raton: CRC Press 12:221-241 This chapter in the CRC series of desk references for professional nutritionists and trainers discusses the origins, mechanisms, uses, safety and results of HMB supplementation in both healthy individuals and those experiencing unwanted muscle loss.

2004

Flakoll, P., R. Sharp, S. Baier, D. Levenhagen, C. Carr, and S. Nissen, 2004 Effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and lysine supplementation on strength, functionality, body composition, and protein metabolism in elderly women, Nutrition 20:445-451 Two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies in elderly women.  Data from two independent studies demonstrate that a nutritional mixture of HMB, arginine, and lysine can enhance whole body protein synthesis and improve functionality in elderly women.

2003

Ransone, J., K. Neighbors, R. LeFavi, and J. Chromiak, 2003 The effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscular strength and body composition in collegiate football players, J. Strength Cond. Res. 17:34-39 Double-blind randomized crossover study in 35 training collegiate football players.
This study was performed with highly trained athletes undergoing an intense training program. Although this study failed to show significant differences, HMB-supplemented subjects gained more lean and lost body fat.

Nissen, S. and R. Sharp, 2003 The efficacy of dietary supplements in accentuating the muscle mass and strength gains achieved with resistance exercise: A meta-analysis, J. Appl. Physiol. 94:651-659 A meta-analysis of dietary supplements used to increase lean and strength which shows few supplements used as ergogenic aids have two or more peer-reviewed studies. Only HMB and creatine have been shown to significantly increase lean and strength gains with exercise.

2001

Vukovich, M.D., N.B. Stubbs and R.M. Bohlken, 2001 Body composition in 70-year-old adults responds to dietary ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) similarly to that of young adults, J. Nutr. 131:2049-2052 Double-blind randomized study in elderly men and women participating in a weight training exercise program.
In this study, HMB tended to increase muscle strength and lean mass while significantly increasing fat loss over this eight-week study in older adults.

Jówko, E., P. Ostaszewski, M. Jank, J. Sacharuk, A. Zieniewicz, J. Wilczak, and S. Nissen, 2001 Creatine and ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight training program, Nutrition 17:558-566 Double-blind randomized study in weight training males.
This is the first major study to show that HMB combined with creatine supplementation results in even greater strength and lean gains than either HMB or creatine supplementation alone.

Slater, G., D. Jenkins, P. Logan, H. Lee, M. Vukovich, J.A. Rathmacher and A.G. Hahn, 2001 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not affect changes in strength or body composition during resistance training in trained men, Int. J. Sport Nutr. & Exer. Met. 11:384-396 Double-blind randomized study in trained male athletes undergoing a weight training program.
In highly trained athletes, HMB numerically increased strength and lean, but the increase was not significantly greater than that of the placebo group.

2000

Panton, L.B., J.A. Rathmacher, S. Baier, and S. Nissen, 2000 Nutritional supplementation of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) during resistance training, Nutrition 16:734-739 Two double-blind randomized studies including males and females and trained and untrained weightlifters.
Two separate studies showed that regardless of gender or prior training, HMB increases strength and minimizes muscle damage when combined with a four-week resistance-training program.

Gallagher, P.M., J.A. Carrithers, M.P. Godard, K.E. Schulze, and S.W. Trappe, 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) ingestion, Part I: effects on strength and fat free mass, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 32:2109-2115 Double-blind randomized study with male weightlifters. In this study, either three or six grams of HMB were consumed per day. HMB increased lean mass, peak muscle torques, and decreased plasma CPK after resistance training with no added benefit seen from consuming the higher level.

1999

Kreider, R.B., M. Ferreira, M. Wilson, and A.L. Almada, 1999 Effects of calcium ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during resistance training on markers of catabolism, body composition, and strength, Int. J. Sports Med. 20:503-509 Randomized placebo-controlled study of 40 experienced, resistance-trained males.  In this four-week study, trained athletes consumed either three or six grams of HMB per day. While not statistically significant, HMB consumption resulted in numerically greater lean and strength gains.

1996

Nissen, S., R. Sharp, M. Ray, J.A. Rathmacher, D. Rice, J.C. Fuller, Jr., A.S. Connelly and N. Abumrad, 1996 Effect of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle metabolism during resistance-exercise training, J. Appl. Physiol. 81:2095-2104 Two double-blind randomized studies in weight training males.  In these separate studies, one for three weeks and one for seven weeks, it was found that feeding three grams of HMB to exercising humans increased lean mass, strength, and reduced muscle damage.

Aerobic Exercise

2007

Lamboley, C.R., D. Royer, and I.J. Dionne, 2007 Effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on aerobic performance components and body composition in college students, Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 17:56-69 Placebo-controlled study in college students.
HMB supplementation significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption.

2001

Vukovich, M.D. and G.D. Dreifort, 2001 The effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on VO2 peak and lactate threshold in endurance-trained cyclists, J. Strength and Conditioning Res. 15:491-497 Double-blind switchback study with HMB, leucine, and placebo.
This study showed that HMB supplementation increased the cyclists endurance as measured by VO2 peak and lactate threshold.

2000

Knitter, A., L. Panton, J.A. Rathmacher, A. Peterson, and R. Sharp, 2000 Effects of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on muscle damage after a prolonged run, J. Appl. Physiol. 89:1340-1344 This double-blind randomized study in male and female runners showed that HMB reduced muscle damage after a prolonged run. Decreasing the amount of muscle damage caused by running may decrease the DOMS soreness many long-distance runners experience.

Safety

2005

Baxter, J.H., J.L. Carlos, J. Thurmond, R.N. Rehani, J. Bultman, and D. Frost, 2005 Dietary toxicity of calcium ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (CaHMB), Food & Chem. Toxicology 43:1731-1741 Toxicity study conducted in rats fed up to five percent HMB in the diet.
The data showed that HMB at five percent of the diet can be considered the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level). This amounted to ~3.5 and ~4.1 g/kg body weight intake per day in male and female rats, respectively. (Like a normal human consuming about 300 g per day.)

2000

Nissen, S., R.L. Sharp, L. Panton, M. Vukovich, S. Trappe, and J.C. Fuller, Jr., 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors, J. Nutr. 130:1937-1945 A summary of safety data from nine double-blind randomized clinical trials including both men and women and young and elderly adults.
HMB supplementation was shown to have no adverse or untoward effects. This summary also shows that HMB supplementation has positive effects on LDL cholesterol (-7.3 percent) and systolic blood pressure (-4.4 mm Hg).

Gallagher, P.M., J.A. Carrithers, M.P. Godard, K.E. Schulze, and S.W. Trappe, 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) ingestion, Part II: effects on hematology, hepatic and renal function, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 32:2116-2119 Double-blind randomized study with male weightlifters.  In this eight-week study, consuming up to six grams of HMB per day was shown to have no adverse effects on measures of hematology and hepatic and renal function.

How HMB Works

2012

Wilson, J.M., S.C. Grant, S.R. Lee, I.S. Masad, Y.M. Park, P.C. Henning, J.R. Stout, J.P. Loenneke, B.H. Arjmandi, L.B. Panton, and J.S. Kim, 2012 Beta-hydroxy-beta-methyl-butyrate blunts negative age-related changes in body composition, functionality and myofiber dimensions in rats, J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 9:18 In a study using sedentary rats of multiple age groups, from young to old, HMB supplementation was shown to maintain muscle mass as the rats aged.  HMB simultaneously decreased fat mass in older rats.  Thus, HMB supplementation may be useful in blunting the effects of sarcopenia (muscle loss with aging) in humans, even without a stimulus such as regular exercise.

Aversa, Z., N. Alamdari, E. Castillero, M. Muscaritoli, F.R. Fanelli, and P.O. Hassegren, 2012 β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) prevents dexamethasone-induced myotube atrophy, Biochem. Biophysical Res. Comm. 423:739-743 This study used a model cell culture system that represents what happens in an animal or human.  Glucocorticoids, such as dexamethasone used in this study, cause increased muscle protein degradation and decreased protein synthesis which result in a loss of muscle.  HMB attenuated the negative effects of dexamethasone on protein degradation and protein synthesis and thus prevented the muscle loss.

Pinheiro, C.H., F. Gerlinger-Romero, L. Guimarães-Ferreira, A.L. de Souza-Jr, K.F. Vitzel, R.T. Nachbar, M.T. Nunes, and R. Curi, 2012 Metabolic and functional effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in skeletal muscle., Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 112:2531-2537 In this study utilizing rats, HMB was shown to improve muscle tetonic force after 4 weeks of oral supplementation. HMB also decreased muscle fatigue as measured by muscle tension developed over successive contractions.  Additionally, HMB increased glycogen, ATP, and citrate synthase activity in these muscles which may have been why the HMB-supplemented rats had increased tetonic force and fatigue resistance.

2009

Kornasio, R., I. Riederer, G. Butler-Browne, V. Mouly, Z. Uni, and O. Halevy, 2009 β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) stimulates myogenic cell proliferation, differentiation and survival via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1793:755-763 This in vitro study of HMB on muscle cells showed that HMB affects myoblast differentiation and survival similar to IGF-1 and suggests that HMB has a positive role in preventing muscle wasting.

Russell, S.T., and M.J. Tisdale, 2009 Mechanism of attenuation by β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate of muscle protein degradation induced by lipopolysaccharide, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 330:171-179 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to simulate an endotoxemia model of muscle wasting in cultured muscle cells.  HMB was shown to attenuate the LPS-induced protein degradation.  HMB attenuated the activation of caspase-3/-8, activation of dsRNA-dependant protein kinase, and production of reactive oxygen species.  This study further defined the mechanism whereby HMB may attenuate protein degradation in muscle wasting.

Wilson, J.M., J. Kim, S. Lee, J.A. Rathmacher, B. Dalmau, J.D. Kingsley, H. Koch, A.H. Manninen, R. Saadat, and L.B. Panton, 2009 Acute and timing effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage, Nutrition & Metabolism 6:6 HMB supplementation was given either pre- (60 min to allow blood levels to increase) or post-exercise to college-aged men performing acute isometric exercise by maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps and hamstrings.  Taking HMB pre-exercise prevented an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an indicator of muscle damage.  Therefore this study indicated there was an advantage to taking HMB pre-exercise.

Holecek, M., T. Muthny, M. Kovarik, and L. Sispera, 2009 Effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on protein metabolism in whole body and in selected tissues, Food Chem. Toxicol. 47:255-259 In this study tissue as well as whole body protein turnover was studied in rats after HMB administration.  This study demonstrated that HMB inhibits proteosome dependant proteolysis in skeletal muscle and decreases whold body protein turnover.

2008

Nunes, E.A., D. Kuczera, G.A. Brito, S.J. Bonatto, R.K. Yamazaki, R.A. Tanhoffer, R.C. Mund, M. Kryczyk, and L.C. Fernandes, 2008 β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation reduces tumor growth and tumor cell proliferation ex vivo and prevents cachexia in Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats by modifying nuclear factor-kappaB expression, Nutr. Res. 28:487-493 This 8-week study using a rat tumor model showed that oral HMB attenuated the cachexic weight loss caused by the tumor, resulted in decreased tumor weight, and improved glucose and glycogen metabolism.  Therefore, HMB at commonly used dosages maintained healthy tissues while helping inhibit the tumor tissue growth.

Eley, H.L., S.T.Russell, and M.J. Tisdale, 2008 Attenuation of depression of muscle protein synthesis induced by lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor, and angiotensin II by β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 295:E1409-E1416 Lipopolysaccharide, tumor nucrosis factor-α and angiotensin II are catabolic in nature and depress protein synthesis.  In cultured muscle cells HMB attenuated the decrease in protein synthesis by stimulating factors involved in the mTOR/p70 pathway.

Eley, H.L., S.T. Russell, and M.J. Tisdale, 2008 Mechanism of attenuation of muscle protein degradation induced by tumor necrosis factor-α and angiotensin II by β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate., Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 295:E1417-E1426 The author's first paper detailed HMB effect on maintianing protein synthesis even after administration of lipopolysaccharide, TNF-α and angiotensin II.  This second set of experiments in cultured muscle cells showed that HMB attenuated a specific pathway involving caspase 3 and 8, PKR (RNA dependant protein kinase), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) known to activate the ubiquitin-protease pathway.  These data provide evidence as to why HMB is effective in maintaining and building muscle mass in a wide range of conditions such as AIDS, cachexia and aging.

2007

Eley, H.L., S.T. Russell, J.H. Baxter, P. Mukerji, and M.J. Tisdale, 2007 Signaling pathways initiated by ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate to attenuate the depression of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle in response to cachectic stimuli, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 293:E923-E931 Protein synthesis studies conducted in a cachectic mouse model and in muscle cell culture.
The results demonstrate that HMB simulates protein synthesis in muscle by multiple mechanisms including the mTOR/p70S6k pathway. Many of these features are also shared with leucine. However, HMB is more potent than leucine in attenuating the development of cachexia and is better tolerated by oral administration.

2005

Smith, H.J., P. Mukerji, and M.J. Tisdale., 2005 Attenuation of proteasome-induced proteolysis in skeletal muscle by ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) in cancer-induced muscle loss, Cancer Res. 65:277-283 Study conducted in a mouse model of cancer tumor growth.
HMB preserves lean body mass and attenuates protein degradation through down regulation of the increased expression of key regulatory components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, togetherwith stimulation of protein synthesis.

Van Someren, K.A., A.J. Edwards, and G. Howatson, 2005 Supplementation with ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) and α-Ketoisocaproic Acid (KIC) reduced signs and symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage in man, Int. J. Sport Nutr. & Exer. Met. 15:413-424 Counterbalanced crossover study in 6 nonresistance trained males given either a placebo or HMB/KIC.
A combination of HMB/KIC, 3 and .3 grams, respectively, was shown to reduce exercise-induced muscle damage.

2004

Smith, H.J., S.M. Wyke, and M.J. Tisdale, 2004 Mechanism of the attenuation of proteolysis-inducing factor stimulated protein degradation in muscle by ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate, Cancer Res. 64:8731-8735 In vitro study of chemical markers of proteolytic functions in muscle cell cultures.
These studies showed HMB inhibits activation of a major protease pathway in muscle thus inhibiting protein degradation in muscle.

2001

Vukovich, M.D., G. Slater, M.B. Macchi, M.J. Turner, K. Fallon, T. Boston, and J. Rathmacher, 2001 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) kinetics and the influence of glucose ingestion in humans, J. Nutr. Biochem. 12:631-639 Randomized trials in which eight males took HMB, HMB plus glucose, glucose alone, or placebo. These metabolic studies showed that the half-life of HMB in plasma is about 2.5 hours and that up to 85 percent of the HMB ingested is retained in the body. Simultaneous glucose ingestion did not affect the percentage of HMB retained.

2000

Slater, G.J., P.A. Logan, T. Boston, C.J. Gore, A. Stenhouse, and A.G. Hahn, 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation does not influence the urinary testosterone:epitestosterone ratio in healthy males, J. Sci. Med. Sport 3:79-83 Case studies of six males taking HMB. Results indicated that HMB does not alter testosterone levels and infer that the HMB acts through a different mechanism.

HMB Innovation

2011

Fuller J.C., R.L. Sharp, H.F. Angus, S.M. Baier, and J.A. Rathmacher, 2011 Free acid gel form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) improves HMB clearance from plasma in human subjects compared with the calcium HMB salt., Br. J. Nutr. 105:367-372  The results of this research study demonstrate that a liquid gel form of HMB is more readily available to tissues when taken orally than the currently available powdered form, Calcium HMB.  The results show quicker and higher plasma levels of HMB with improved utilization by the tissues. HMB free acid gel could improve HMB availability and efficacy to tissues in health and disease. 

Additional Human Studies

2011

Fuller J.C., R.L. Sharp, H.F. Angus, S.M. Baier, and J.A. Rathmacher, 2011 Free acid gel form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) improves HMB clearance from plasma in human subjects compared with the calcium HMB salt., Br. J. Nutr. 105:367-372 The results of this research study demonstrate that a liquid gel form of HMB is more readily available to tissues when taken orally than the currently available powdered form, Calcium HMB.  The results show quicker and higher plasma levels of HMB with improved utilization by the tissues. HMB free acid gel could improve HMB availability and efficacy to tissues in health and disease. 

2004

Rathmacher, J. A., S. Nissen, L. Panton, R. H. Clark, M. P. Eubanks, A. E. Barber, J. D'Olimpio, and N. N. Abumrad, 2004 Supplementation with a combination of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), arginine, and glutamine is safe and could improve hematological parameters, JPEN 28:65-75 Consumption of HMB, arginine, and glutamine by healthy, AIDS patients and cancer patients was studied.  No adverse effects were seen and the mixture enhanced hematological parameters such as red blood cell numbers.

2002

May, P.E., A. Barber, J.T. D’Olimpio, A. Hourihane, and N.N. Abumrad, 2002 Reversal of cancer-related wasting using oral supplementation with a combination of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate, arginine, and glutamine, Am. J. Surgery 183:471-479 Lean body mass can be increased in cancer wasting by targeting nutrition to increase protein synthesis and decrease protein degradation (multi-center study).

Williams, J. Z., N. Abumrad, and A. Barbul, 2002 Effect of a specialized amino acid mixture on human collagen deposition, Ann. Surgery 236:369-375 HMB combined with the amino acids arginine and glutamine increased collagen synthesis in human wound healing.

2001

Coelho, C.W. and T. Carvalho, 2001 Effects of HMB supplementation on LDL-cholesterol, strength, and body composition of patients with hypercholesterolemia, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 33:s340 In hypercholesterolemic men participating in an exercise program, HMB decreased LDL cholesterol by 28 percent as well as increasing strength and lean gains. No changes in LDL were seen in the placebo group.

2000

Neighbors, K.L., J.W. Ransone, B.H. Jacobson, and R.G. LeFavi, 2000 Effects of dietary ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate on body composition in collegiate football players, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 32:s60 HMB both decreased body fat and increased lean mass in these well-trained collegiate football players.

Ransone, J.W., K. L. Neighbors, T.B. Adams, B.H. Jacobson, and R.G. LeFavi, 2000 The effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate supplementation on muscular strength in collegiate athletes during a strenuous exercise program, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 32:s61 HMB supplementation increased lean mass in a brief, strenuous exercise program in highly trained athletes.

Zachwieja, J.J., S.R. Smith, S.L. Nissen, and J.A. Rathmacher, 2000 ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) is produced in vivo in humans from leucine, FASEB J. 14:A747 HMB is produced from leucine in humans and increasing plasma leucine will increase the rate of appearance and amount of plasma HMB.

Clark, R.H., G. Feleke, M. Din, T. Yasmin, G. Singh, F. Khan, and J. Rathmacher, 2000 Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), glutamine, and arginine: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, JPEN 24:133-139 AIDS patients who had previously lost body weight gained back body weight and lean body mass as well as increased T-cells and decreased viral load when they consumed a dietary supplement containing HMB, arginine, and glutamine (eight-week clinical study).

1999

Byrd, P.L., P.M. Mehta, P. DeVita, D. Dyck, and R.C. Hickner, 1999 Changes in muscle soreness and strength following downhill running: Effects of creatine, HMB, and Betagen supplementation, Med. & Sci. in Sports & Exer. 31:S263 HMB and Betagen (HMB and creatine) were the only supplements shown to decrease muscle soreness after downhill running, and HMB, creatine, and Betagen all decreased the loss in strength associated with the running.

Rathmacher, J.A., S.L. Nissen, L. Panton, J. Fuller, Jr., R.H. Clark, G. Singh, and N.N. Abumrad, 1999 Safety of a nutritional mixture of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), glutamine, and arginine in healthy young adults and patients with AIDS, JPEN 23:S10 The nutrient mixture of HMB, glutamine, and arginine was well tolerated in both healthy males and patients suffering from AIDS with no adverse effects seen in either study.

Zachwieja, J.J., S.R. Smith, G.A. Bray, J.C. Lovejoy, T.L. Witt, J.P. DeLany, and J.A. Rathmacher, 1999 Effect of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate on muscle protein synthesis during prolonged bedrest, FASEB J. 13:A1025 The trend for increased strength maintenance with HMB was not due to a change in muscle protein synthesis or whole-body protein turnover during periods of bed rest.

Macchi, M.B., M.J. Turner, J.A. Rathmacher and M.D. Vukovich, 1999 Influence of coingestion of glucose on ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) metabolism in humans, FASEB J. 13:A909 The half-life of HMB in the blood was shown to be about three hours and was independent of glucose intake or insulin level.

Rathmacher, J.A., J.J. Zachwieja, S.R. Smith, J.L. Lovejoy, and G.A. Bray, 1999 The effect of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate on lean body mass and muscle strength during prolonged bedrest, FASEB J. 13:A909 Three grams of HMB per day tended to decrease the strength loss associated with extended periods of bed rest.

1997

Cohen, D.D., 1997 The effect of ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) and resistance training on changes in body composition during positive and negative energy balance – a randomized double-blind study, M.Sc. Thesis, St. Bartholomew's and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry – 0:Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of Lo HMB helped maintain muscle mass while on a calorie-restricted diet.

Nissen, S., L. Panton, J. Fuller, Jr., D. Rice, and R. Sharp, 1997 Effect of feeding ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition and strength of women, FASEB J. 11:A150 In two separate studies, one with and one without exercise, HMB was fed to women. No effect of HMB on body composition was measured in the non-exercising group of women, but in women undergoing exercise, HMB increased lean gain, fat loss, and strength.

Nissen, S. and N.N. Abumrad, 1997 Nutritional role of the leucine metabolite ß-hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB), J. Nutr. Biochem. 8:300-311 This paper reviews the first seven human studies with HMB and summarizes health and safety data generated as well as the muscle and strength gain data from these studies. The only significant changes in blood chemistry are decreases in total and LDL cholesterol.

HMB - Supplement Facts

PEAK-ELITE PLUS -  Supplement Facts

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